Research on the Brain
Children absorb more radiation and are more vulnerable.

"Up to 10 times in the bone marrow of their skull." 

Our Children's Brains are  Worth Protecting


"The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure." (Bin 2013)

"30 min LTE 4G affects brain activity on both sides of the brain."

3G


Dr. Suleyman Kaplan, Chairman of the Department of Embryology, Director of Health Sciences Institute, has published four research studies showing damage to to the thinking and memory centers of the brain.












He detailed his research in an  FCC Submission calling for more protective standards for microwave radiation.

Even at very, very low levels the brain is effected by microwave radiation. 
Research is showing altered brain activity, impaired cognition and impaired learning from radiation at levels below FCC guidelines. 

Perhaps most notable is the research showing brain cell damage and increased cell death in the brain after exposure to "low levels" of wireless radiation. 


National Association for Children and Safe Technology

Neurotoxic Effects:


Cognitive Impairment


Altered learning


Impaired Memory


Brain inflammation


DNA strand breaks


Decreased cells


Younger subjects =
higher effects
*This image is from Om Ghandi et al  research cited by the World Health Organization.

4G

Prenatal Brain Damage ?

The Baby Safe Project



Neurosurgeon Dr. Leif Salford  discusses his research showing increased permeability of the brain's protective layer.
Listen to Dr. Volkow, Head of NIDA discuss her research that showed brain changes after exposure to very low amounts of microwave radiation.
Leakage of the Blood Brain Barrier
This research shows wireless radiation at very low amounts opened up the protective layer of the brain.  This means that toxins can be more easily be absorbed into the brain and cause damage.  This may explain why there is research showing that lead exposed children with more wireless exposure had increased lead poisoning symptoms compared with children with the same lead exposure but lower wireless radiation.



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Wireless Concerns


“Pregnant women deserve to know that wireless radiation can have an impact on the developing brain,”
says Maya Shetreat-Klein, a pediatric neurologist practicing in New York.

“We’re seeing alarming increases in the number of children diagnosed with neurological disorders over the past decade, and anything we can  do that might help reduce that rate should be taken very seriously.”

-The Baby Safe Project

In June 2014 Doctors started the BabySafe Project, urging pregnant women take precautions to reduce wireless radiation based on research showing brain damage from prenatal exposure. 


Please visit The BabySafe Project Website to learn more of this important initiative.

"Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain." (Kesari 2014)
"3G radiation
affects brain function and causes several neurological disorders."
Megha et al., Microwave Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress, Cognitive Impairment, and Inflammation in Brain of Fischer Rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2012; 50 (12): 889 - 896
  •  “Significant impairment in cognitive function and induction of oxidative stress in brain tissues of microwave exposed rats were observed, in comparison with sham exposed groups… Results of the present study indicated that increased oxidative stress due to microwave exposure may contribute to cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain.”

Deshmukh et al., Effect of Low Level Microwave Radiation Exposure on Cognitive Function and Oxidative Stress in Rats.Indian J Biochem Biophys.
  •  “Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation) and unaltered GSH content in blood. Thus, the study demonstrated that low level MW radiation had significant effect on cognitive function and was also capable of leading to oxidative stress.”

Kesari  et al., Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014 Mar;68(2):347-58.
  • Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in the brain. Meanwhile, a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in the exposed group.  Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response.  Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiation affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.


Ayşe İkinci, Ersan Odacı, Mehmet Yıldırım, Haydar Kaya, Metehan Akça, Hatice Hancı, Ali Aslan, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Orhan Baş.The Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a 900 Megahertz Electromagnetic Field on Hippocampus Morphology and Learning Behavior in Rat Pups. NeuroQuantology. 11(4):582-590. December 2013
  • Pregnant rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz EMF on days 13 to 21 of pregnancy, for 1 h a day. Offspring  were tested for leaning and memory  with the Radial arm maze and passive avoidance tests and then their brain tissue was examined. Our results showed 900 MHz EMF in the prenatal period adversely affected female pups’ learning behavior and also resulted in histopathological changes appearing in the hippocampus.


Chen C, Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells.Sci Rep.May 29, 2014
  •  "Neurite outgrowth of eNSC differentiated neurons was inhibited after 4 W/kg RF-EMF exposure for 3 days. the mRNA and protein expression of the proneural genes Ngn1 and NeuroD, which are crucial for neurite outgrowth, were decreased after RF-EMF exposure.  The expression of their inhibitor Hes1 was upregulated by RF-EMF exposure.  These results together suggested that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure impairs neurite outgrowth of eNSCs.  More attention should be given to the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF exposure on brain development."


Naziroğlu M. and Gumral 2009. Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat. Int J Radiat Biol. 85(8): 680-689.
  • Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz   60 min/day for 28 days had lower cortex brain vitamin A (p < 0.05), vitamin C (p < 0.01) and vitamin E (p < 0.05) concentrations Chen C, Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells.


Júnior LC, Guimarães ED, Musso CM, Stabler CT, Garcia RM, Mourão-Júnior CA, Andreazzi AE. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Neurol Res. 2014 Jan 27:1743132813Y0000000276.
  • Frequency of rearing was increased by 193.3%, revealing an increase in exploratory activity of the animals, which is also related to anxiety, depression, and stressful behavior.

Saikhedkar N, Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain.Neurol Res. 2014 May 26:1743132814Y0000000392.
  • Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves.  Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation are indicating extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and cerebral cortex.  This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning.

Odaci, E., Bas, O., Kaplan, S., 2008. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Res. 1238, 224–229.
  • Prenatal exposure caused a progressive postnatal decline in the number of granule cells of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of offspring.

Qiao S, Peng R, Yan H, Gao Y, Wang C, Wang S, Zou Y, Xu X, Zhao L, Dong J, Su Z, Feng X, Wang L, Hu X. Reduction of Phosphorylated Synapsin I (Ser-553) Leads to Spatial Memory Impairment by Attenuating GABA Release after Microwave Exposure in Wistar Rats. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 17;9(4):e95503. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095503. eCollection 2014.
  • A decrease in spatial memory performance after non-thermal microwave exposure. "Our experiments on Wistar rats and PC12 cell line suggest that microwave exposure (30 mW/cm2) can induce behavioral and cognitive dysfunction via altered GABAergic transmission. We have shown for the first time that reduced p-Syn I (ser-553) expression plays a critical role in this effect."


Bas, O., Odaci, E., Mollaoglu, H., Ucok, K., Kaplan, S., 2009a. Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol. Ind. Health 25, 377–384.
  • A significant reduction in the total number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus, which involves short-term memory and learning. Sixteen-week old rats are comparable to the age of human teenagers.

Bas, O., Odaci, E., Kaplan, S., Acer, N., 2009b. 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in adult rat. Brain Research. 1265, 178–185.
A statistically significant decrease in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus and an increase in dark cells.

Bin Lv, Zhiye Chen, Tongning Wu, Qing Shao, Duo Yan, Lin Ma, Ke Lu, Yi Xie. The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure. Clinical Neurophysiology. Published online 4 September 2013.
  • 30 min LTE 4G  exposure modulated the spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in brain regions.


Jing J et al, (March 2012) The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Mar;31(1):57-66. Epub 2012 Jan 23
  • Pregnant rats were exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones.  Significant content differences were found in  superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) after fetal  brains were assayed. “Through this study, we concluded that receiving a certain period of microwave radiation from cellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.”

Razavinasab M1, Moazzami K, Shabani M. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.Toxicol Ind Health. 2014 Mar 6.
  • "The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats.  Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques."


Volkow ND, Tomasi D, Wang GJ, Vaska P, Fowler JS, Telang F, Alexoff D, Logan J, Wong C. Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. JAMA. 2011 Feb 23;305(8):808-13. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.186.
  • A 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna.

Liu Y-x, Tai J-l, Li G-q, Zhang Z-w, Xue J-h, et al. (2012) Exposure to 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA Electromagnetic Fields Affects the Apoptosis of Astrocytes via Caspase-3-Dependent Pathway. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042332
  • "48 h of exposure damaged the mitochondria of astrocytes and induced apoptosis through caspase-3-dependent pathway involving bax and bcl-2. These results are important for properly understanding the mode of action of 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA RF radiation on living organisms, especially in the case of adverse effects. "

Sonmez OF, Odaci E, Bas O, Kaplan S., 2010. Purkinje cell number decreases in the adult female rat cerebellum following exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field. Brain Res. 2010 Oct 14;1356:95-101.
  • Long duration exposure to 900 MHz EMF leads to decreases of Purkinje cell numbers in the female rat cerebellum.

Zuo H, Lin T, Wang D, Peng R, Wang S, Gao Y, Xu X, Zhao L, Wang S, Su Z. RKIP Regulates Neural Cell Apoptosis Induced by Exposure to Microwave Radiation Partly Through the MEK/ERK/CREB Pathway. Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Aug 10.
  • Differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to continuous microwave radiation at 2.856 GHz for 5 min with average power density of 30 mW/cm2.
  • RKIP was downregulated after microwave exposure while the MEK/ERK/CREB signaling pathway was activated excessively. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decreased, activity of caspase-3 increased, and thus apoptotic DNA fragmentation increased.
  • In conclusion, RKIP plays an important role in the neural cell apoptosis induced by microwave radiation, and the regulation of cell apoptosis by RKIP is partly through the MEK/ERK/CREB pathway. This suggests that RKIP may act as a key regulator of neuronal damage caused by microwave radiation.